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While the relationship between international trade and domestic economic activity is an important topic in economics, research in this area has been slowed due to data limitations.
In this paper we provide tools that improve the existing data in two ways.
S.--are classified based on the Harmonized System developed by the World Customs Organization (WCO). maintains separate HS classifications for imports and exports and classifies products at the ten-digit level. Export codes--formally known as " Schedule B" codes--are maintained by the Foreign Trade Division (FTD) of the U. For import HS codes, the ITC further aggregates the 99 chapters into 22 broad " sections," which are listed in Table 1. economic activity is classified according to the NAICS, which is standardized for the first five digits across the U. Census refers to the first four digits of an SIC code, and the first six digits of a NAICS code, as an industry. industries is defined outside the Census Bureau, Census generally has discretion in defining product classes and products within these industries.
The WCO begins by assigning products into 99 broad 2-digit categories such as chapter 72, "Iron and Steel." These chapters are then further broken out into 6-digit HS codes for categories of goods such as heading 851670, which is defined in the 2007 HS as "Coffee or tea makers." Individual countries are then free to maintain more disaggregated classifications beyond the 6-digit level. Import codes are provided in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule and maintained by the U. The full listing of HS chapters and 10-digit HS import and export codes are available at websites of the ITC and FTD, respectively. economic activity until the Census Bureau's 1997 economic census, with major revisions of the SIC occurring in 19. It reserves the terms product class and product for the first five and seven digits of an SIC code, and the first seven and ten digits of a NAICS code, respectively. The primary economic activity classifications for both SIC and NAICS are provided in Table 2.
Second, we provide concordances between HS codes and the SIC and NAICS product classes used to classify U. manufacturing production, allowing for matching at a more disaggregated level than was previously available.
Empirical researchers in the fields of international trade and industrial organization are increasingly focused on examining the relationship between international trade and domestic economic activity.
In each year of an economic census, Census constructs two mappings linking HS codes to basecodes and linking basecodes to SIC5 or NAICS7 product classes, respectively.
Section 5 discusses how the latter can be used to link Census production and trade data. Appendices provide the Stata code used to implement our algorithm and generate the concordances discussed in the paper and describe the key files used to construct the concordances.