Radiocarbon dating and the prehistoric archaeology of china
within the rose family) from postfuneral fires and wood pieces preserved in the socketed arrowheads, lance, and axe as summarized in Table 3. The directly dated tombs span the interval between 149 and 414 y (95%) or most likely between 173 and 298 y (68%). 2) show great similarity to finds from kurgans (e.g., Arzhan 1 and Berlik in Fig.The results (Table 3) allow us to conclude that the whole phase of activity started between 1108 and 893 B. (95% probability range) or most likely between 1017 and 926 B. The whole phase seems to have finished between 760 and 493 B. 1), with the inventories representing different steppe and forest-steppe cultures, such as Bol'shaya Rechka, Krasnoozero, and late Irmen’ in Siberia (4); Tasmola and Zebakino-Dongal in Kazakhstan (4); and Subeshi in Xinjiang (31).Bone material has been implemented for arrowheads (Fig. To date, macro- and microscopic analyses performed on 100 human skeletons in various (very good to poor) degrees of preservation (24, 25) provide rich demographic (Table 1) and paleopathological information (Table 2) about the ancient population.A great number of pathological changes (e.g., fractures of vertebral bodies, strain and trauma of the adductor muscles, stress fractures of foot bones, ligament strain of the ankle joint, stress fractures of the scapula) (Fig.Pastoral nomadism, as a successful economic and social system drawing on mobile herding, long-distance trade, and cavalry warfare, affected all polities of the Eurasian continent.The role that arid Inner Asia, particularly the areas of northwestern China, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia, played in the emergence of this phenomenon remains a fundamental and still challenging question in prehistoric archaeology of the Eurasian steppes. was traditionally seen as a period of rapid growth of a powerful network of culturally similar tribes of mounted mobile pastoralists and warriors (among them, “Scythians” and “Saka”) across the Eurasian steppes (discussion and references in 1–4).Furthermore, studies on earlier forms of pastoralism in Eurasia from at least the late third millennium B. (10, 11) indicate a long developmental process leading to the complex subsistence strategies and political economies of the first millennium B. In a recent review of the archaeology of the Eurasian steppes and Mongolia, the “significant role” that this study field “must come to play in developing more comprehensive understandings of world prehistory” was stressed (13).
This feature and the presence of disturbed and incomplete skeletons with displaced components probably indicate multiple burial events and the reopening of the grave pits for subsequent burials.2 ) and bracelets (found in 2 tombs), and a mirror (found in 1 burial).