The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members.Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC.His paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War.His grandfather had served in several local political offices.He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen of the State").The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.When he had recovered, he sailed to the front, but was shipwrecked; after coming ashore with a handful of companions, he crossed hostile territory to Caesar's camp, which impressed his great-uncle considerably. On 15 March 44 BC, Octavius's adoptive father Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Octavius was studying and undergoing military training in Apollonia, Illyria, when Julius Caesar was killed on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC.He rejected the advice of some army officers to take refuge with the troops in Macedonia and sailed to Italy to ascertain whether he had any potential political fortunes or security.
Because of this, Octavius was raised by his grandmother, Julia, the sister of Julius Caesar.He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.